Cairo sprang from the foundations of a recent town, according
to the Egyptian time standards. This region was originally
settled in the Paleolithic and witnessed the great development
of the Neolithic communities. This region was, since the pre
dynastic period of the Pharahonic era, a very remote extension
of On, the center of Ra cult where the priests of Heliopolis
area had worshipped the sun god. It was there, that the battle
opposing Horus to Seth took place, according to the Osirian
legend. It was also there, that what the Persian invaders built
in 525 BC the fort of Babylon to control the trade routes of the
Old World. In 117 Trajan, the roman governor of Egypt, repaired
the old canal originally built by the older Pharaohs of the 12th
dynasty to link, across the Nile dominated by Babylon, from up
north, the Mediterranean Sea to east at the Red Sea. During
these later periods of that roman's occupation, a Christian
community grew up around Babylon where the world's oldest Coptic
churches were built, at the end of the 4th century: St. Sergius
church and as well as that church of St. Barbara. Taking hold of
Babylon in 639, Amr Ibn El As, the leader of the Arab army,
conquered Egypt and expelled the Romans. gradually, Egypt has
converted to Islamic, the location of Amr's camp, in front of
Babylon, became the center of a military city El Fostat or the
tent, an extension was to be added by the Abbassides called El
Askar or the soldiers, this was followed by another extension
added by the Toulounides El Katayea or the tribes, therefore the
city grew up in splendor: Amr's mosque, the world's oldest third
mosque, the palace of the governor, public bathes, houses,
gardens, markets. In 969 Gohar, the Fatimides army leader built,
to the north of El Katayea, a much larger city which was then
named El Kahera or the victorious Cairo. In 973 El Azhar mosque
and its large Islamic University was built..
Cairo became the capital of Egypt in 1176 Saladin built the
Citadel and surrounded the old city and the capital, with
defensive walls. The reign of Ismail started, in 1865, a new era
of modernization: Cairo was enlarged by adding new extensions,
wide streets adorned with trees, gardens, Opera house, houses
and villas, large hotels. In 1952, a revolution took a place and
Egypt became a republic, some of the new cities were built
around Cairo to solve the problems of overpopulation. Cairo
today is one of the world's largest cities, it is a very
metropolitan city, many luxurious hotels, wide variety of
restaurants, all types of museums, galleries of arts, Opera
house and theaters, 5 large universities, sports clubs and
stadiums, zoological gardens and many entertainment centers,
movies and shopping centers, the Old Bazaar of Khan El Khalili,
a large net of underground metro, bridges and highways, also 2
international airports, floating hotels and restaurants on the
Nile, modern hospitals also the banks, aviation and tourist
agencies, embassies and cultural centers. And above all of that
there is the welcoming Egyptian people.
Cairo is a city that never sleeps, it is a 5000 years old
megalopolis stretching to the pyramids. Memphis Necropolis In
3200 BC the legendary Pharaoh "Mena" unified Egypt and created
the first state in history, his capital was "Memphis". There
parallel to the capital, on the Nile western bank, the "city of
the dead" covered a sandy stretch 50 km long. More than 80
pyramids, hundreds of tombs and mastabas bearing colored
paintings which represent the daily life of the ancient
Egyptians. Giza pyramids and the sphinx built 4600 years ago for
the pharaohs Kheops, Khefren & Mykerinos. Sakkara steps Pyramid,
built 4700 years ago for the pharaoh Djeser, the first rocky
construction in history.
Built in 1857, under the supervision of August Mariette, it
contains of the fabulous treasure of Tutankhamen, the mummies
hall and the largest collection of Pharaonic monuments.
Stretching on the Nile eastern bank, Old Cairo is a mixture of
the present and the past, Coptic and Islamic monuments.
The most beautiful collection of Coptic arts (icons,
manuscripts, sacerdotal ornament)
St. Serge church:
Built on the crypt in which the Holy Family stayed, it is
regarded as a source of blessings.
St. Barbara church:
Built on the southern tower gate of Babylon fort and dedicated
for the Virgin, it houses ebony and ivory inlaid wooden screens.
St. Mercurius church:
Houses a collection of 175 rare icons.
The most beautiful collection of Islamic arts (ivory inlaid
wooden doors and screens, mosaic and marble fountains, silver
and gold inlaid weapons, colored glass cups.).
The oldest one in Egypt, it houses a marble column sent from
Mekka in 642.
Sultan Saladin citadel and its alabaster mosque which founded by
Mohamed Ali the grand father of the latest former King Farouq.
El Azhar mosque:
The Mosque that houses the oldest Islamic university in the
world which still yet giving the knowledge to the students.
Khan el Khalili bazaars:
The oldest market "Souk" in Cairo (spices, fruits, ivory,
silver, gold, tissues, restaurants and coffee shops of local
Cairo tower which it built at 1960.
Opera house, with its galleries of arts and music halls.
Heliopolis, with its commercial centers and gardens.
Floating restaurants, navigating on the Nile.
Sound and light show at Giza pyramids.
During the Memphis period of the Old Kingdom, it was only an
obscure town known as Waset or the Scepter (Symbol of
sovereignty). The power of Waset increased gradually, in 2060
B.C. Mentohotep, Prince of Waset, reunified Egypt and extended
its sovereignty to Nubia, even when the Hyksos (asiatic tribes)
invaded the Delta and Middle Egypt in 1785 B.C., Waset did not
submit, in 1580 B.C. Ahmos the prince of Waset expelled the
Hyksos, reunified Egypt and Waset became the capital of the New
Kingdom, its god Amun became the supreme state god, during the
next six hundred years, Egypt expanded to the south (Nubia and
Kush) and to the east (the Euphrates banks), Waset reached the
peak of the glory, the city of the one hundred gates: (luxurious
palaces, huge temples, a large gardens, trading centers, foreign
embassies), then it became the cosmopolitan city of the Egyptian
empire and the first city of the old world. The decline started
in 1095 BC, when the great priest of Amum (Herithor) seized the
throne and declared himself pharaoh. The divided Egypt weakened
the Empire, strikes came from the south and the east until the
Assyrians destroyed Waset in 665 BC leaving the glorious city in
ruins. Waset remained forgotten during the periods of the Greek
and Roman domination. When the Arabs came & conquered Egypt in
639, being impressed by the ruins of the palaces and temples in
Waset, they named it "Aloksor" or the palaces which known today
as Luxor. When Champollion discovered the secrets of the
hieroglyphic language in 1822, attention was drawn back to Luxor
again. Adventurers, archeologists and visitors started to come,
Luxor became a very tourstic center, an open book of history.
Explore the historic of Luxor:
Born more than 5000 years ago; Luxor is by far the largest
museum in the all world. Whenever you walk, you will experience
the past and the present at the same time. Built for eternity in
granite and sandstone, the tombs and the temples still stand
surrounded by houses, markets and hotels. "In the City of the
living" Luxor and Karnak temple greet the sunrise. In the "City
of the dead" the sunset throws its shadows through the statues
and the columns.
City of the Living:
Waset stretched along the eastern bank of the Nile, its houses
and palaces did not survive, only the houses of gods are still
The largest temple in the world dedicated for Amun. The Pharaohs
of the Middle Kingdom built the oldest structures, the latest
ones were added during the Ptolemaic period. The most
outstanding features are the White Chapel of Sesostris I and the
Great Hypo style hall with its 134 huge columns. A long dorms,
lined by sphinx statues, connected Karnak temple to Luxor
Lying 3 km to the south of Karnak temple was built for Mut.
During the Opet (new year festival), Amun headed the procession
starting from Karnak temple and joined his wife "Mut" in Luxor
temple, the main structures were built by Amenophis III and
Very fine and exceptional pharaonic collection exhibited
elegantly. Felucca: sail on the Nile to Banana island. City of
the Dead. On the western bank of the Nile, stretching parallel
to Waset, lies the great necropolis. Mortuary temples of the
great pharaohs, hundreds of rocky tombs dug in the mountains.
Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens:
Contain the largest tombs dug deeply in the rocky mountains, the
tombs walls bear colored paintings and inscriptions showing the
journey of the dead to the underworld and his judgment, the tomb
of Tutankhamen contains his mummy.
The best well preserved tombs are those of: Queen Nefertari,
also the Prince Amunhirkhopchef, King Seti I, King Tuthmosis
III, King Amenophis II.
Tombs of the Nobles and the workers:
The most beautiful tombs of Egypt, its paintings show every
aspect of life in Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom:
Nakht, Menna, Sennefer, Rekhmara, Mahout, Ramose, Sennedjem.
Hatchepsut's temple unique in its style, 3 successive and
overlapping stories framed by the mountain.
It goes up the Nile to Aswan (220 KM to the south of Luxor)
allowing the passengers to enjoy the scenarios of the Egyptian
campaign and to visit the Ptolemaic temples: Esna, Edfu and Kom
The best well preserved of all Egypt's temples, built 2325 years
ago for the worship of the god Horus.
Kom Ombo temple:
The only double temple in Egypt, all the elements of the
structure are doubled since it was built for the worship of two
gods: Haraeoris and Sobek
Since the period of the Old Kingdom, Sian was the door of Africa
controlling the trade routes from the south to the north. It was
the harbor and the market, its name is derived from Sianite or
the red granite extracted from its quarries around. Opposite to
Sian or Aswan, is Abou or the island of elephants, the capital
of the first district in Egypt, housing the palace of its
governor. Because of its geographical position, it had been
chosen by Erathostenes to calculate the radius of the earth in
230 BC. Aswan gained more of its importance, after the high dam
construction in 1972, it became a source of electrical energy
and a water reservoir.
Explore the historic of Aswan:
Born more than 5000 years ago, Aswan has been the main market of
the African products; (spices, leathers, ivory, fruits, grains,
baskets, mummified and living crocodiles). It is the sunniest
winter resort in Egypt, the Nile flowing through amber desert
and granite islands covered with palm trees and tropical plants.
Elephantine island, and also the ancient Nilometer measuring the
floods. Botanical island, a small forest of tropical plants and
The High dam:
One of the world's largest dams (2100000 kw) and its lake, the
second in the world, spreads to Sudan (500 km. Long)
Built at 2378 years ago, was transferred in 1972 to Aegilika
Island which level is higher than that of the artificial lake.
This temple was just dedicated to be the goddess Isis.
(280 km to the south of Aswan) Lake cruise, it goes up to
allowing the passengers to visit a series of temples built by
the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom (Kalabsha, Wadel Seboua, Amada,
The colored and spicy market of Aswan:
One unique of its own kind of markets in All Africa not just
The Nubian museum:
Housing the finest collection of Nubian arts and monuments.
Salvage of the Nubian temples:
The lower Nubian is that part of the Nile valley lying in
between the first and second cataract, its ancient name was
Kush. Since the period of the Middle Kingdom, Kush was dominated
by Egypt and assimilated gradually the Egyptian influence, the
pharaohs of successive dynasties extended the building of their
temples to Kush, which is completely submerged under the waters
of the High Dam lake. In 1960, the UNESCO started a great world
campaign to save the so-called Nubian temples, this successful
campaign ended in 1972. Abu Simble temples (280 km to the south
of Aswan) Built more than 3250 years ago by the great builder
Pharaoh Ramses II, the temples entrances are guarded by the
Pharaoh colossal statues. The two temples are completely dug
inside the rocky mountain, these salvage took place in 6 phases:
Removing 300000 tons of rocks surrounding the temples, cutting
the temple into 1036 blocks, and enumerating each one of them,
transferring the 15000 tons of enumerated blocks to a higher
ground level, reconstruction of the temples, reconstruction of
the mountain surrounding the temples (the same phases were
applied for the salvage of Philae temple lying between the High
Dam and Aswan Dam).
(10 km to the south of Aswan): Built by the Pharaohs of the New
Kingdom and restored by the Romans, dedicated for Egyptian and
Nubian gods. Its original location was 40 km to the south of the
actual one, and was transferred in the same way as Abu Simble.
Wadel Seboua temples:
(150 km. To the south of Aswan, 2 km north the original
location) Built by Ramses II for Egyptian and Nubian gods.
(180 km to the south of Aswan, 3 km north the original location)
Built by the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for Egyptian and Nubian
gods. The best well preserved of Nubian temples, it was
transferred in one block package on triple railways.
Built in 332 BC, by Alexander
the great, on the location of the
old harbor Rakotis, Alexandria became the capital of the
Ptolemaics, an extension was built to join the main land to
Pharos island, on which rose the 1st light-house in history.
Alexandria grew up and became a cosmopolitan city, harbor and
trading centers, the great library, the academy which attracted
the best artists and scientists of the Old World: Antophilos
(painter), Euclid (Mathematics), Erathostenes (Physics) Under
the Roman occupation, which started in 48 BC, Alexandria became
the second city of the Roman Empire. The decline started in 383,
when Alexandria became a Christian center, destruction of
temples, schools and also the academy was considered a blow to
paganism. When the Arab army entered Alexandria in 641, it
retained some of its glamour: 4000 palaces, 4000 public bathes,
1200 gardens, 400 circus and entertaining centers, 500000
inhabitants. But it's commercial power as well as its population
decreased very quickly. During the rule of Mohamed Ali and his
successors, Alexandria regained its position as a commercial and
a military harbor, connected to the Nile by a canal in 1819. The
population increased from 6000 to 200 000 persons (50 000
foreigners). Today Alexandria is the 2nd largest city in Egypt
(5 million inhabitants) and is one of the best summer resorts on
the Mediterranean Sea, with its beaches extending to the length
of 40 Km, its luxurious hotels, its restaurants, its theaters
Born 2330 years ago, the little remains from its glorious past,
the catacombs, Pompey pillar, the roman theater, Kaytbay fort
built on the location of Pharos, Montazah palace. Many summer
resorts exist actually to the west of Alexandria, and many more,
extending to the city of Marsa Matrouh known for its large
beaches and its clear blue sea. The recent excavations revealed
the glory of Alexandria lying at the bottom of the Mediterranean
Western desert Oases
Surrounded by an ocean of sterile sands, the oases are green
islands of fertile soil. Many projects are executed to create a
new valley, parallel to the Nile valley, in this so much
promising region (more than 5 millions of acres are available
( 230 Km south west of Assiut )
The most advanced and the largest oasis (area 3500 Sq. KM, with
about 60 000 inhabitants). Hibis, the capital's name in Greek,
is divided into a modern city & an ancient one (much smaller in
which the narrow streets are roofed). Hibis temple, built by
Darius the Persian 2500 years ago, was dedicated to Amun an
ancient Christian necropolis is lying north to Bagawat, the
ancient capital. Agricultural projects are very promising: 3000
natural sources of water, with a 500 artificial water sources,
more than 4 millions of acres are available for the agriculture.
To the south, the hot water natural springs (up to43°C), well
known for the treatment of rheumatism and allergies.
( 200 Km to west of Kharga )
Almost equal to Kharga (area 1500 Sq. KM, 50000 inhabitants). It
is a group of 10 settlements, well known for its fruits,
apricots, and mangos. The capital Mut, goddess of Waset, houses
the museum of inheritance (showing Dakhla culture and family
life), the ancient capital El Kasr (35 Km from Mut) is a
labyrinth of mud walled houses separated by very narrow alleys.
A spring of hot sulfured water is close to the ruins of a temple
dedicated to Amun.
( 330 km to the south -west of Cairo )
Its 10 000 inhabitants are divided between 4 villages, the
largest of which is Bawiti famous for its dates. The other three
villages are well known for their water springs (27 °C). There
are ruins of an ancient temples at El Kasr. At Bawiti, ruins of
an ancient Coptic Church. The White Desert is an attractive
destination for tourists, lying to the south of Baharia, it
appears similar to the moon surface: white mica and white rocks
having curious shapes: mush-room, castles, pipes.
(300 Km to the south west of Marsa Matrouh )
Its 20 000 inhabitants are divided between 2 settlements and
small oases. Known for its lakes and water springs useful for
the treatment of rheumatism, as well as for its fruits: dates
and olives. It is a beautiful garden surrounding the fresh water
The Red Sea Cities
The beaches of the Red Sea are worldwide known: its clear blue
waters, colored corals and rare marine life. Mountains, having
different colors and running parallel to the coastline,
separated from the sea only by a plain, most of which is
suitable for safari. It's a moderate climate and enchanting
natural beauty blend together to charm all the visitors. Red Sea
is surrounded by Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Sudan,
Ethiopia, Yemen and Djibouti. Water temperatures range between
18° C and 21° C in winter, 21° C and 26.5° C in summer.
Underwater visibility is excellent up to 30 meters, and diving
is possible up to 45 meters. The average diving depth, however,
ranges between 12 and 25 meters.
About 395 km to the south of Suez, Hurghada has a very pleasant
climate all year round and offers facilities for fishing and
snorkeling, diving and also the windsurfing. It has camping
sites. Hurghada is actually the foremost tourist resort on the
Red Sea coast and an international center for all kind of
sports. Its unique underwater coral gardens are the best in the
world. You can have a day trip to Giftun Island for snorkeling
and fishing or view the marine life through a glass bottomed
boat. When you're not in the sea you can go for shopping or have
a safari trip by Jeep to the Red Sea Mountains.
22 Km. To the north of Hurghada, "El gouna" is one of the
largest and most up-to date tourist resorts, housing hotels and
restaurants, artificial lakes and marinas, playgrounds, an
airport and diving centers.
Soma is one of the latest tourist destinations in Egypt, 45 Km
to the south of Hurghada. Soma bay is well known as a very rich
diving spot. Actually, a new activity is going on Golf, for the
time being the game is performed on 9 holes
playing ground. It is planned to enlarge the playing ground up
to 18 holes.
Safaga harbor, 60 Km to the south of Hurghada, is the exporting
center of the phosphates since it is very close to the
phosphates mines. Actually, Safaga has become a tourist
destination specialized in diving holidays; the beaches and the
diving spots are still virgin. It is also an ideal site for the
windsurfing activities. A large number of luxurious hotels and
tourist resorts provide to tourists the best facilities. Safari
tours by Jeep are organized to the Red Sea Mountains.
El Kosseir, 80 Km to the south of Safaga, was the pharaonic
harbor receiving precious stones, spices incense and ivory
coming from Somalia (the country of Punt). Actually, besides
being a fishermen village, it is a tourist resort known for its
virgin diving spots and its luxurious hotels. A Turkish fort,
from the 16th century, is still standing in the middle of the
The strategic position of Sinai and its mineral resources had
always been of great importance to the pharaohs of Egypt who
succeeded to keep Sinai under control. Historical traces of this
influence are not the main attraction, Sinai visitors are
interested in its beaches and its well known Monastery of St.
Sharm El Sheikh:
On Akaba gulf 340 km. to the south -east of Suez. "Sharm El
Sheikh" is an important tourstic destination, the beaches framed
by multicolored mountains from one side and from the other side
the blue sky sea , exquisite coral reefs, luxurious hotels,
marinas and diving centers.
On the southern peak of Sinai 55 km to the south - west of Sharm
El Sheikh. Ras Mohamed is a natural reserve, a refuge for a very
rare forms of life, the Paradise of the real divers.
Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba:
Leaving Sharm el Sheikh and heading to the north, following the
coast, there we have 3 centers known for; their beautiful
natural frame, their beaches and their diving sites.
St. Catherine's Monastery:
It looks like a rectangular fort, surrounded by high granite
walls enclosing the different elements of the monastery, built
by the emperor Justinian in 527, it was originally the idea of
the empress Helen of Russia. The monastery is lying between 2
sacred mountains: Moses mountain, 2285 meters high, on which the
prophet received the "Tables of the law". and St. Catherine
mountain, 2367 meters high, on which the angels placed the body
of the saint. discovered 500 years later, the body was taken to
the monastery. The main elements of the monastery are; A small
mosque built in the 10th century, Moses fountain and the garden,
The library containing 3500 manuscripts (Greek, Arabic, Coptic,
Armenian, Syrian, Slavic) which represent the second best world
collection after that of the Vatican. The museum containing the
treasure; Russian and French cups, reliquaries, icons, crosses,
sacerdotal ornaments. The Church of Byzantine Style, built in
the 6th century, containing paintings of the prophets and the
disciples, Russian lamps in silver and gold, icons a marble
sarcophagus containing the relics of the saint, the floor of the
church is an Arab disigned mosaic of the marble.