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 Historical View of All Egypt Sights

Cairo
 Cairo sprang from the foundations of a recent town, according to the Egyptian time standards. This region was originally settled in the Paleolithic and witnessed the great development of the Neolithic communities. This region was, since the pre dynastic period of the Pharahonic era, a very remote extension of On, the center of Ra cult where the priests of Heliopolis area had worshipped the sun god. It was there, that the battle opposing Horus to Seth took place, according to the Osirian legend. It was also there, that what the Persian invaders built in 525 BC the fort of Babylon to control the trade routes of the Old World. In 117 Trajan, the roman governor of Egypt, repaired the old canal originally built by the older Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty to link, across the Nile dominated by Babylon, from up north, the Mediterranean Sea to east at the Red Sea. During these later periods of that roman's occupation, a Christian community grew up around Babylon where the world's oldest Coptic churches were built, at the end of the 4th century: St. Sergius church and as well as that church of St. Barbara. Taking hold of Babylon in 639, Amr Ibn El As, the leader of the Arab army, conquered Egypt and expelled the Romans. gradually, Egypt has converted to Islamic, the location of Amr's camp, in front of Babylon, became the center of a military city El Fostat or the tent, an extension was to be added by the Abbassides called El Askar or the soldiers, this was followed by another extension added by the Toulounides El Katayea or the tribes, therefore the city grew up in splendor: Amr's mosque, the world's oldest third mosque, the palace of the governor, public bathes, houses, gardens, markets. In 969 Gohar, the Fatimides army leader built, to the north of El Katayea, a much larger city which was then named El Kahera or the victorious Cairo. In 973 El Azhar mosque and its large Islamic University was built..
Cairo became the capital of Egypt in 1176 Saladin built the Citadel and surrounded the old city and the capital, with defensive walls. The reign of Ismail started, in 1865, a new era of modernization: Cairo was enlarged by adding new extensions, wide streets adorned with trees, gardens, Opera house, houses and villas, large hotels. In 1952, a revolution took a place and Egypt became a republic, some of the new cities were built around Cairo to solve the problems of overpopulation. Cairo today is one of the world's largest cities, it is a very metropolitan city, many luxurious hotels, wide variety of restaurants, all types of museums, galleries of arts, Opera house and theaters, 5 large universities, sports clubs and stadiums, zoological gardens and many entertainment centers, movies and shopping centers, the Old Bazaar of Khan El Khalili, a large net of underground metro, bridges and highways, also 2 international airports, floating hotels and restaurants on the Nile, modern hospitals also the banks, aviation and tourist agencies, embassies and cultural centers. And above all of that there is the welcoming Egyptian people.
Explore Cairo:
 Cairo is a city that never sleeps, it is a 5000 years old megalopolis stretching to the pyramids. Memphis Necropolis In 3200 BC the legendary Pharaoh "Mena" unified Egypt and created the first state in history, his capital was "Memphis". There parallel to the capital, on the Nile western bank, the "city of the dead" covered a sandy stretch 50 km long. More than 80 pyramids, hundreds of tombs and mastabas bearing colored paintings which represent the daily life of the ancient Egyptians. Giza pyramids and the sphinx built 4600 years ago for the pharaohs Kheops, Khefren & Mykerinos. Sakkara steps Pyramid, built 4700 years ago for the pharaoh Djeser, the first rocky construction in history.
Egyptian Museum:
Built in 1857, under the supervision of August Mariette, it contains of the fabulous treasure of Tutankhamen, the mummies hall and the largest collection of Pharaonic monuments.
Old Cairo:
Stretching on the Nile eastern bank, Old Cairo is a mixture of the present and the past, Coptic and Islamic monuments.
Coptic Museum:
The most beautiful collection of Coptic arts (icons, manuscripts, sacerdotal ornament)
St. Serge church:
Built on the crypt in which the Holy Family stayed, it is regarded as a source of blessings.
St. Barbara church:
Built on the southern tower gate of Babylon fort and dedicated for the Virgin, it houses ebony and ivory inlaid wooden screens.
St. Mercurius church:
Houses a collection of 175 rare icons.
Islamic museum:
The most beautiful collection of Islamic arts (ivory inlaid wooden doors and screens, mosaic and marble fountains, silver and gold inlaid weapons, colored glass cups.).
Amr's mosque:
The oldest one in Egypt, it houses a marble column sent from Mekka in 642.
The Citadel:
Sultan Saladin citadel and its alabaster mosque which founded by Mohamed Ali the grand father of the latest former King Farouq.
El Azhar mosque:
The Mosque that houses the oldest Islamic university in the world which still yet giving the knowledge to the students.
Khan el Khalili bazaars:
The oldest market "Souk" in Cairo (spices, fruits, ivory, silver, gold, tissues, restaurants and coffee shops of local type)
Modern Cairo:
Cairo tower which it built at 1960.
Opera house, with its galleries of arts and music halls.
Heliopolis, with its commercial centers and gardens.
Floating restaurants, navigating on the Nile.
Sound and light show at Giza pyramids.
Luxor
During the Memphis period of the Old Kingdom, it was only an obscure town known as Waset or the Scepter (Symbol of sovereignty). The power of Waset increased gradually, in 2060 B.C. Mentohotep, Prince of Waset, reunified Egypt and extended its sovereignty to Nubia, even when the Hyksos (asiatic tribes) invaded the Delta and Middle Egypt in 1785 B.C., Waset did not submit, in 1580 B.C. Ahmos the prince of Waset expelled the Hyksos, reunified Egypt and Waset became the capital of the New Kingdom, its god Amun became the supreme state god, during the next six hundred years, Egypt expanded to the south (Nubia and Kush) and to the east (the Euphrates banks), Waset reached the peak of the glory, the city of the one hundred gates: (luxurious palaces, huge temples, a large gardens, trading centers, foreign embassies), then it became the cosmopolitan city of the Egyptian empire and the first city of the old world. The decline started in 1095 BC, when the great priest of Amum (Herithor) seized the throne and declared himself pharaoh. The divided Egypt weakened the Empire, strikes came from the south and the east until the Assyrians destroyed Waset in 665 BC leaving the glorious city in ruins. Waset remained forgotten during the periods of the Greek and Roman domination. When the Arabs came & conquered Egypt in 639, being impressed by the ruins of the palaces and temples in Waset, they named it "Aloksor" or the palaces which known today as Luxor. When Champollion discovered the secrets of the hieroglyphic language in 1822, attention was drawn back to Luxor again. Adventurers, archeologists and visitors started to come, Luxor became a very tourstic center, an open book of history.
Explore the historic of Luxor:
 Born more than 5000 years ago; Luxor is by far the largest museum in the all world. Whenever you walk, you will experience the past and the present at the same time. Built for eternity in granite and sandstone, the tombs and the temples still stand surrounded by houses, markets and hotels. "In the City of the living" Luxor and Karnak temple greet the sunrise. In the "City of the dead" the sunset throws its shadows through the statues and the columns.
City of the Living:
Waset stretched along the eastern bank of the Nile, its houses and palaces did not survive, only the houses of gods are still there.
Karnak temple:
The largest temple in the world dedicated for Amun. The Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom built the oldest structures, the latest ones were added during the Ptolemaic period. The most outstanding features are the White Chapel of Sesostris I and the Great Hypo style hall with its 134 huge columns. A long dorms, lined by sphinx statues, connected Karnak temple to Luxor temple.
Luxor temple:
Lying 3 km to the south of Karnak temple was built for Mut. During the Opet (new year festival), Amun headed the procession starting from Karnak temple and joined his wife "Mut" in Luxor temple, the main structures were built by Amenophis III and Ramses II.
Luxor Museum:
Very fine and exceptional pharaonic collection exhibited elegantly. Felucca: sail on the Nile to Banana island. City of the Dead. On the western bank of the Nile, stretching parallel to Waset, lies the great necropolis. Mortuary temples of the great pharaohs, hundreds of rocky tombs dug in the mountains.
Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens:
Contain the largest tombs dug deeply in the rocky mountains, the tombs walls bear colored paintings and inscriptions showing the journey of the dead to the underworld and his judgment, the tomb of Tutankhamen contains his mummy.
The best well preserved tombs are those of: Queen Nefertari, also the Prince Amunhirkhopchef, King Seti I, King Tuthmosis III, King Amenophis II.
Tombs of the Nobles and the workers:
The most beautiful tombs of Egypt, its paintings show every aspect of life in Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom: Nakht, Menna, Sennefer, Rekhmara, Mahout, Ramose, Sennedjem. Hatchepsut's temple unique in its style, 3 successive and overlapping stories framed by the mountain.
Nile Cruises:
It goes up the Nile to Aswan (220 KM to the south of Luxor) allowing the passengers to enjoy the scenarios of the Egyptian campaign and to visit the Ptolemaic temples: Esna, Edfu and Kom Ombo.
Edfu temple:
The best well preserved of all Egypt's temples, built 2325 years ago for the worship of the god Horus.
Kom Ombo temple:
The only double temple in Egypt, all the elements of the structure are doubled since it was built for the worship of two gods: Haraeoris and Sobek
Aswan
Since the period of the Old Kingdom, Sian was the door of Africa controlling the trade routes from the south to the north. It was the harbor and the market, its name is derived from Sianite or the red granite extracted from its quarries around. Opposite to Sian or Aswan, is Abou or the island of elephants, the capital of the first district in Egypt, housing the palace of its governor. Because of its geographical position, it had been chosen by Erathostenes to calculate the radius of the earth in 230 BC. Aswan gained more of its importance, after the high dam construction in 1972, it became a source of electrical energy and a water reservoir.
Explore the historic of Aswan:
Born more than 5000 years ago, Aswan has been the main market of the African products; (spices, leathers, ivory, fruits, grains, baskets, mummified and living crocodiles). It is the sunniest winter resort in Egypt, the Nile flowing through amber desert and granite islands covered with palm trees and tropical plants. Elephantine island, and also the ancient Nilometer measuring the floods. Botanical island, a small forest of tropical plants and birds.
The High dam:
One of the world's largest dams (2100000 kw) and its lake, the second in the world, spreads to Sudan (500 km. Long)
Philae temple:
Built at 2378 years ago, was transferred in 1972 to Aegilika Island which level is higher than that of the artificial lake. This temple was just dedicated to be the goddess Isis.
Abu Simble:
(280 km to the south of Aswan) Lake cruise, it goes up to allowing the passengers to visit a series of temples built by the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom (Kalabsha, Wadel Seboua, Amada, Abu Simble)
The colored and spicy market of Aswan:
One unique of its own kind of markets in All Africa not just Egypt.
The Nubian museum:
Housing the finest collection of Nubian arts and monuments.
Salvage of the Nubian temples:
 The lower Nubian is that part of the Nile valley lying in between the first and second cataract, its ancient name was Kush. Since the period of the Middle Kingdom, Kush was dominated by Egypt and assimilated gradually the Egyptian influence, the pharaohs of successive dynasties extended the building of their temples to Kush, which is completely submerged under the waters of the High Dam lake. In 1960, the UNESCO started a great world campaign to save the so-called Nubian temples, this successful campaign ended in 1972. Abu Simble temples (280 km to the south of Aswan) Built more than 3250 years ago by the great builder Pharaoh Ramses II, the temples entrances are guarded by the Pharaoh colossal statues. The two temples are completely dug inside the rocky mountain, these salvage took place in 6 phases: Removing 300000 tons of rocks surrounding the temples, cutting the temple into 1036 blocks, and enumerating each one of them, transferring the 15000 tons of enumerated blocks to a higher ground level, reconstruction of the temples, reconstruction of the mountain surrounding the temples (the same phases were applied for the salvage of Philae temple lying between the High Dam and Aswan Dam).
Kalabsha temples:
(10 km to the south of Aswan): Built by the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom and restored by the Romans, dedicated for Egyptian and Nubian gods. Its original location was 40 km to the south of the actual one, and was transferred in the same way as Abu Simble.
Wadel Seboua temples:
(150 km. To the south of Aswan, 2 km north the original location) Built by Ramses II for Egyptian and Nubian gods.
Amada temple:
(180 km to the south of Aswan, 3 km north the original location) Built by the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for Egyptian and Nubian gods. The best well preserved of Nubian temples, it was transferred in one block package on triple railways.
Alexandria
 Built in 332 BC, by Alexander the great, on the location of the old harbor Rakotis, Alexandria became the capital of the Ptolemaics, an extension was built to join the main land to Pharos island, on which rose the 1st light-house in history. Alexandria grew up and became a cosmopolitan city, harbor and trading centers, the great library, the academy which attracted the best artists and scientists of the Old World: Antophilos (painter), Euclid (Mathematics), Erathostenes (Physics) Under the Roman occupation, which started in 48 BC, Alexandria became the second city of the Roman Empire. The decline started in 383, when Alexandria became a Christian center, destruction of temples, schools and also the academy was considered a blow to paganism. When the Arab army entered Alexandria in 641, it retained some of its glamour: 4000 palaces, 4000 public bathes, 1200 gardens, 400 circus and entertaining centers, 500000 inhabitants. But it's commercial power as well as its population decreased very quickly. During the rule of Mohamed Ali and his successors, Alexandria regained its position as a commercial and a military harbor, connected to the Nile by a canal in 1819. The population increased from 6000 to 200 000 persons (50 000 foreigners). Today Alexandria is the 2nd largest city in Egypt (5 million inhabitants) and is one of the best summer resorts on the Mediterranean Sea, with its beaches extending to the length of 40 Km, its luxurious hotels, its restaurants, its theaters and park.
Explore Alexandria:
 Born 2330 years ago, the little remains from its glorious past, the catacombs, Pompey pillar, the roman theater, Kaytbay fort built on the location of Pharos, Montazah palace. Many summer resorts exist actually to the west of Alexandria, and many more, extending to the city of Marsa Matrouh known for its large beaches and its clear blue sea. The recent excavations revealed the glory of Alexandria lying at the bottom of the Mediterranean sea.
Western desert Oases
 Surrounded by an ocean of sterile sands, the oases are green islands of fertile soil. Many projects are executed to create a new valley, parallel to the Nile valley, in this so much promising region (more than 5 millions of acres are available for agriculture).
Kharga:
( 230 Km south west of Assiut )

The most advanced and the largest oasis (area 3500 Sq. KM, with about 60 000 inhabitants). Hibis, the capital's name in Greek, is divided into a modern city & an ancient one (much smaller in which the narrow streets are roofed). Hibis temple, built by Darius the Persian 2500 years ago, was dedicated to Amun an ancient Christian necropolis is lying north to Bagawat, the ancient capital. Agricultural projects are very promising: 3000 natural sources of water, with a 500 artificial water sources, more than 4 millions of acres are available for the agriculture. To the south, the hot water natural springs (up to43C), well known for the treatment of rheumatism and allergies.
Dakhla:
( 200 Km to west of Kharga )

Almost equal to Kharga (area 1500 Sq. KM, 50000 inhabitants). It is a group of 10 settlements, well known for its fruits, apricots, and mangos. The capital Mut, goddess of Waset, houses the museum of inheritance (showing Dakhla culture and family life), the ancient capital El Kasr (35 Km from Mut) is a labyrinth of mud walled houses separated by very narrow alleys. A spring of hot sulfured water is close to the ruins of a temple dedicated to Amun.
Baharia:
( 330 km to the south -west of Cairo )

Its 10 000 inhabitants are divided between 4 villages, the largest of which is Bawiti famous for its dates. The other three villages are well known for their water springs (27 C). There are ruins of an ancient temples at El Kasr. At Bawiti, ruins of an ancient Coptic Church. The White Desert is an attractive destination for tourists, lying to the south of Baharia, it appears similar to the moon surface: white mica and white rocks having curious shapes: mush-room, castles, pipes.
Siwa:
(300 Km to the south west of Marsa Matrouh )
Its 20 000 inhabitants are divided between 2 settlements and small oases. Known for its lakes and water springs useful for the treatment of rheumatism, as well as for its fruits: dates and olives. It is a beautiful garden surrounding the fresh water springs.
The Red Sea Cities
 The beaches of the Red Sea are worldwide known: its clear blue waters, colored corals and rare marine life. Mountains, having different colors and running parallel to the coastline, separated from the sea only by a plain, most of which is suitable for safari. It's a moderate climate and enchanting natural beauty blend together to charm all the visitors. Red Sea is surrounded by Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen and Djibouti. Water temperatures range between 18 C and 21 C in winter, 21 C and 26.5 C in summer. Underwater visibility is excellent up to 30 meters, and diving is possible up to 45 meters. The average diving depth, however, ranges between 12 and 25 meters.
HURGHADA:
About 395 km to the south of Suez, Hurghada has a very pleasant climate all year round and offers facilities for fishing and snorkeling, diving and also the windsurfing. It has camping sites. Hurghada is actually the foremost tourist resort on the Red Sea coast and an international center for all kind of aquatic
sports. Its unique underwater coral gardens are the best in the world. You can have a day trip to Giftun Island for snorkeling and fishing or view the marine life through a glass bottomed boat. When you're not in the sea you can go for shopping or have a safari trip by Jeep to the Red Sea Mountains.
El Gouna:
22 Km. To the north of Hurghada, "El gouna" is one of the largest and most up-to date tourist resorts, housing hotels and restaurants, artificial lakes and marinas, playgrounds, an airport and diving centers.
Soma Bay:
Soma is one of the latest tourist destinations in Egypt, 45 Km to the south of Hurghada. Soma bay is well known as a very rich diving spot. Actually, a new activity is going on Golf, for the time being the game is performed on 9 holes
playing ground. It is planned to enlarge the playing ground up to 18 holes.
SAFAGA:
Safaga harbor, 60 Km to the south of Hurghada, is the exporting center of the phosphates since it is very close to the phosphates mines. Actually, Safaga has become a tourist destination specialized in diving holidays; the beaches and the diving spots are still virgin. It is also an ideal site for the windsurfing activities. A large number of luxurious hotels and tourist resorts provide to tourists the best facilities. Safari tours by Jeep are organized to the Red Sea Mountains.
El Kosseir:
El Kosseir, 80 Km to the south of Safaga, was the pharaonic harbor receiving precious stones, spices incense and ivory coming from Somalia (the country of Punt). Actually, besides being a fishermen village, it is a tourist resort known for its virgin diving spots and its luxurious hotels. A Turkish fort, from the 16th century, is still standing in the middle of the village.
Sinai
 The strategic position of Sinai and its mineral resources had always been of great importance to the pharaohs of Egypt who succeeded to keep Sinai under control. Historical traces of this influence are not the main attraction, Sinai visitors are interested in its beaches and its well known Monastery of St. Catherine.
Sharm El Sheikh:
On Akaba gulf 340 km. to the south -east of Suez. "Sharm El Sheikh" is an important tourstic destination, the beaches framed by multicolored mountains from one side and from the other side the blue sky sea , exquisite coral reefs, luxurious hotels, marinas and diving centers.
Ras Mohamed:
On the southern peak of Sinai 55 km to the south - west of Sharm El Sheikh. Ras Mohamed is a natural reserve, a refuge for a very rare forms of life, the Paradise of the real divers.
Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba:
Leaving Sharm el Sheikh and heading to the north, following the coast, there we have 3 centers known for; their beautiful natural frame, their beaches and their diving sites.
St. Catherine's Monastery:
It looks like a rectangular fort, surrounded by high granite walls enclosing the different elements of the monastery, built by the emperor Justinian in 527, it was originally the idea of the empress Helen of Russia. The monastery is lying between 2 sacred mountains: Moses mountain, 2285 meters high, on which the prophet received the "Tables of the law". and St. Catherine mountain, 2367 meters high, on which the angels placed the body of the saint. discovered 500 years later, the body was taken to the monastery. The main elements of the monastery are; A small mosque built in the 10th century, Moses fountain and the garden, The library containing 3500 manuscripts (Greek, Arabic, Coptic, Armenian, Syrian, Slavic) which represent the second best world collection after that of the Vatican. The museum containing the treasure; Russian and French cups, reliquaries, icons, crosses, sacerdotal ornaments. The Church of Byzantine Style, built in the 6th century, containing paintings of the prophets and the disciples, Russian lamps in silver and gold, icons a marble sarcophagus containing the relics of the saint, the floor of the church is an Arab disigned mosaic of the marble.  
 

 
 

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