Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush 

Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush Nubia is a harsh desert land that is located in modern day southern Egypt and northern Sudan that is divided by the Nile River. Despite its dire living conditions, Nubia, throughout time has been a land of prosperity fired by a natural wealth of gold, ebony, ivory, and incense to name a few. Nubia was not only home to the Ethiopians but home to Africaís earliest black culture.Its history alone can be rooted back over 5100 years. There were two early cultures in northern Nubia; the A-group and the C-group. The earlier group, the A-group (from 3800-3100 BC), developed the Sudanese-Saharan Neolithic, the first continues agricultural tradition in Africa west of Nubia in a modern day desert. It was mostly an area with inhospitable living conditions, but the farmers learned to make use and manage parts of the Nile Riverís annual flood. However, life for the C-group (from 2300-1550 BC) was not as prosperous as the fortunate A-group. The C-group was settled along the Nile, from Aswon to the Second Cataract, and their agriculture was heavily dependent upon cattle. As Egypt, to the north, divided itself politically, those from the C-group began to migrate there and were functioning actively in shaping the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (about 2050 BC). During this time, Egypt and Nubia (then called Kush), grew closer socio-economically. Then, in about 1950 BC, Egypt conquered northern Nubia, but left southern Kush and the Medjay people (people of the eastern desert) to be independent, and it would remain this way for nearly 250 years. Although northern Nubia was under Egyptian rule, it kept its identity culturally. The southern Kush, influenced by the Medjay, eventually took back lower Nubia with the C-group and Egyptian garrisons as Egypt itself began to splinter again. This would become what was known as the rising of the Kerma (early Kush). However, that would not be the last time Egypt ruled over Nubia. They would again regain their control over Nubia for another 450 years. During this time, Nubiaís culture and customs became almost identical with that of Egypt. The Egyptians would build several temples and structures that were used for religion, culture, politics, or economy, such as Abu Simel. But by 800 BC, Egypt had splintered into rival states once again, and there the Kingdom of Kush was born. It rapidly expanded into a gigantic empire and the Kushites expanded their borders north of Thebes. As Egypt was fragmenting under Libyan rulers, Meroe, to the south, was established. During the Egyptian battle and the expansion to Thebes, the Kushite King Piye was summoned by the Egyptians to help them fight the northerners. Piye cam forth from the capital of Kush; Nepata, won the battle, and unified the Nile from the Mediterranean to Meroe. The victory for Nubia was due in large part to the skilled and famed archers of their land. This is why the Egyptians referred to Nubia as Ta-Seti or Land of the Bow. All was good for years in the Kushite Kingdom until the sixth century when they tried to stop the Assyrian advance in Asia and were defeated. This prompted the Kushites to move the capital south, from Nepata to Meroe. During this time, pyramid tombs and temples were built to both Nubian and Egyptian gods. Life would remain constant but changing slowly in Nubia due to people migrating to the Nile Valley. Pyramid tombs were replaced by tumulus burials and culture continued to pivot. Then at almost 250 AD, a people from east of the Nile, known as X-group, or Blemmyes to the Greeks, or Bedja to the Arabs, overran most of Egypt and lower Nubia. Later, the X-group was expelled from Egypt, but they kept a good base in Nubie just south of Aswan. But by 300 AD, the Merotic province of lower Nubia collapsed and started to be run by the Noubades (now known as Nubians), and a new kingdom was born. By the year 500 AD Nubia became a Christian state, but at the same time, Egypt fell to the Muslims. During the Christian reign of Nubia, there were several great works of art created as well as decorative pottery. This created an awkward religious isolation for Nubia being the only Christian empire that side of the Mediterranean. This made Nubia very cautious, with good reason. There would be several attempts by the Arabs from Egypt to convert Nubia to Muslim, and by 1400, Nubia would be converted to Muslim, and would remain that way to date.  


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