Nubians are proud of themselves and of their history and consider themselves a superior minority in Egypt.”This sense of superiority buttressed by recent archeological findings suggesting that Nubia, not Egypt, may have been the “first true African civilization” says Nubian studies expert Robert Fernea, now professor emeritus of anthropology at the University of Texas-Austin, called Old Nubia home for four years in the early 1960s

The Nubians, with their darker skin color, Mediterranean facial features and frizzy hair to differentiate them for other Egyptians, consist of three different groups based on their ethnic and linguistic variances. The Kenuz who lived in the city of Aswan, speak Metouki, the Arabs who lived 40 kilometers south of Aswan, speak Arabic, and finally the Fedija who occupied 130 kilometers of the southern Nile, speak Mahas The life of the Nubians living from Aswan to the Second Cataract from the beginning of the past century is linked to the building of the two Aswan Dams, which caused the flooding of their traditional environment and opened a new chapter in their history, a chapter which we are still writing
When Egypt decided to construct the High Dam , the World's attention was by the wonderful scheme its design ,scale ,volume ,cost and its enormous benefits to both Egypt and the Sudan ,in addition to its political effects including the nationalization of the maritime Suez Canal . The people of Halfa city were moved to Khashm El- Girba ( 600km south of their original homes ) where a new dam was built in 1964 to allow for expansion in cultivation for the benefit of these people for raising their level of economic prosperity. In Egypt , the situation was different. The Egyptian Nubian had undergone three severe cases due to the flooding of their lands . The first case was in 1902 when the Old Aswan Reservoir was initially built. while the second and third cases were in 1912 and 1933 when the dam was heightened On each case the inhabitants of the flooded area in Nubian preferred to live on the meager cultivation of small patches of land lying at a higher level between the rocks in their natives soil ,rather than make

a big change for the better by emigrating. The obstinately rebuilt their houses a little higher up and most of the men went to work in the towns of the North in order to be able to send money home to attain their homes families .Nubia" is the name of a specific ethnic and culture area in Africa. It is part of the Nile Valley, and it lies partly in southern Egypt and partly in northern Sudan. In the north, its boundary is approximately the area of modern Aswan, Egypt. It extends southward, along the Nile, to about the area of modern Khartoum, Sudan, where the Blue and White Niles meet to form the single great Nile. By the measure of the winding river, this distance is about 1000 miles (1600 km). In a straight line, it about 700 miles (1200 km). The northern 200 miles (330 km) lies in Egypt; it is known as "Lower (i.e. northern) Nubia." In the late 1960's all this land was permanently flooded by the Aswan Dam, and the people were forced to move elsewhere. Today the only preserved and accessible parts of Nubia lie in northern Sudan, which is known as "Upper (i.e. southern) Nubia."

Ancient Nubia . around 5,100 years ago, a rich and powerful nation called the kingdom of Kush (also referred to as the ancient Nubia) was a center of culture and military might in Africa. Ancient Nubia had a wealth of natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper, frankincense and ebony but they also produced and traded a variety of goods such as pottery .Education in new Nuba . The literacy rate among Nubians is very low in comparison to their rural Egyptian neighbors. Primary , preparatory and secondary schools have been set up in New Nubia, and there are also teacher-training facilities in the area .The Nubians were converted to Christianity during the sixth century. They remained so until the gradual process of Islamization began taking place from the fourteenth until the seventeenth centuries. Today, the Nubians are all Muslims. However, their traditional animistic beliefs (belief that non-living objects have spirits) are still mingled in with their Islamic practices

Aswan (ancient Syene), city in southern Egypt, capital of Aswan Governorate, on the Nile River, near Lake Nasser. Under the pharaohs, Syene was an important city near quarries that furnished the granite for many Egyptian temples. The period of greatest prosperity, however, was under the Romans. Modern Aswan contains many ancient architectural remains. The city's industries use hydroelectricity produced at the nearby Aswan High Dam. The Higher Industrial Institute (1962) is in Aswan
Aswan is the southern-most city in Egypt. It has a scenic location on the eastern banks of the Nile. Looking across the Nile to the west bank, one can see the desert descend the hillsides to the greenery that hugs the banks of the river. Several islands are sprinkled along the Nile here and rock outcroppings add to the beauty of the surrounding scenery. The fall and winter climate is ideal when near the river - warm, with slight breezes that propel feluccas up and down and across the Nile. The population here is largely Nubian, a distinctly different flavor from Egyptian, more African seemingly

In the new Nubia , the three group are resettled in three separate areas to ensure the independence of each one. The facades were mostly plastered , painted and decorated . Mastabas ( the low clay benches along the front of the houses ) were often built to serve their traditional function as outdoor places for neighborhood gatherings and entertainment individual and combined barns were also built to keep animals out of the houses in order to maintain cleanliness of the living quarters. The climate of the new settlement area much resembles that of Nubia . The land is ample and all village are near their own fields. In general the whole project was based on principle of justice and self-sufficiency . Full attention was to the Nubian's spiritual as well as physical welfare.In the past, Nubian life revolves around the Nile River. The Nile provides water for drinking, cooking, and washing as well as for irrigation. The yearly flood makes agriculture possible. In the midst of the desert, the flood not only brings abundant water but also renews the soil along its banks by depositing a rich load of silt from upstream. In appreciation for the benefits of the Nile, the entire village gathers by the river during ceremonies such as weddings, circumcisions, and harvest festivals.Nubian life revolves around the Nile River. The Nile provides water for drinking, washing, agriculture, In appreciation for the benefits of the Nile. the entire village gathers by the river during ceremonies such as birth, weddings , circumcisions, and harvest festivals

The History of Nubian civilization extends back to abouit 17,000 years (See Van Sertima: Egypt Revisited)  { Pianke Nubiyang in THE RISE OF NUBIANISM }
The Nubians created the world's first civilization and that civilization was much older than Egypt. In fact, in 2000, archeologists discovered many facinating artefacts, including glasswork of great beauty and excellent craftsmanship. These were found in Sudan and according to Time Magazine, some artefacts were dated to about 8000 years B.C. Astronomy was also well organized in Nubia during the period and an astronomical observatory dating back to about 7000 B.C. was found in Sudan as well. It is also in Sudan that a large number of ancient cities exist
The Nubians also built a large number of small pyramids later on in their history but they used a very sophisticated system of tombs to bury their kings. Many were similar in style to the early Egyptian Mastabas. Those of later centuries were small pyramids with chapels built on top and the tombs at the beneath the ground
Still, the Nubians continue to maintain their pride and their culture. They continue to maintain their history and to make sure that their contributions to world civilizations is not stolen. During a conversation with Nubians, Professor Gates (who made a documentary on African history about two years ago) found out first hand that Nubians in Nubia continue to maintain the great pride in self that was part of the spiritual consciousness that made Nubian civilization great and long-lasting . Although today we speak of "ancient Nubia," the name "Nubia" did not exist before the Middle Ages. The term seems originally to have come from the tribal name "Nuba" or "Noba", which first appears in historical texts in the second century BC. By the fourth century AD, they were dwelling on both sides of the river and had absorbed the declining kingdom of Kush, centered at Mero‘. They were converted to Christianity in the sixth century AD and formed first three, then two, Christian kingdoms that flourished side by side until the fifteenth century. These people gave their name to these kingdoms, which were called "Nubian

Many early Egyptian inscriptions, dating between 3200 and 2600 BCE, mention Nubia, which is called "Land of the Bow." At least five of these seem to be about Egyptian military raids on Nubia. Because hieroglyphic writing of this time does not give us detailed history, we know little of these eventsNubia was famous throughout ancient history as a land of expert and feared archers. Pictures from as early as 3200 BCE show Nubians carrying bows. The Egyptians even used a bow as the hieroglyphic spelling for the name "Nubia." Throughout history, pictures and drawings of Nubian gods, kings, and warriors show them holding bows. In graves of Nubian men, archaeologists often find their skeletons holding bows and lying beside quivers of arrows. In later centuries, men were sometimes buried wearing stone rings on their thumbs. These rings allowed them to pull back the bowstrings without cutting or hurting themselves.About 2600 BCE, the Egyptians began hiring thousands of Nubian men as archers for their armies .Ancient Nubia is one of the richest areas of Egypt in terms of ancient monuments. Nubia contains 16 temples, amongst the most important of which is the Great Temple of Abu Simbel, 280 kilometres south of Aswan. This temple was carved from the rock in the reign of Rameses II on a rocky hill overlooking the Nile. Four statues of the Pharoah carved from the living rock guard the temple. Nearby is the Lesser Temple of Abu Simbel, dedicated by Rameses II to the goddess Hathor, and also carved from the rock in honor of his wife Nefertari
By the time the High Dam was completed in 1971 and the whole of Nubia was flooded by Lake Nasser, the great temples of the area had been saved. Some had even been transported, piece by piece, to countries like the United States and Sudan. The magnificent temples of Abu Simbel, Kalabsha, Philae, El-Sebua, Amada, Beit El-Wali, and the Kiosk of Kertassi

The Nubian can be proud of their language and should be reminded of the old Nubian, the language of the medieval Christian kingdom, is the only African non-Afro-Asiatic language which developed a literature written for at least 700 years,i.e. from the 16th to 15th A.D. The study of old nubian and the publication of the texts discovered in different campaign's is still going on Language: The Kenuzi speak Kenuzi-Dongolawi while the Fedidja speak Fedidja-Mahas. There is also a group within the Nubians who have become Arabicized to the point that their first language is now Arabic. Most of the men today are bilingual, speaking their Nubian language and Arabi .The Nubian languages make much more use of suffixes than of prefixes or infixes, especially in noun inflection. Nouns have forms for the nominative, vocative, objective, genitive, locative, in strumental, and ablative cases in some of the languages. A collective noun used as the subject of a sentence may be followed by either a singular or a plural verb .About fifty languages spoken in the Nuba Mountains (I am of course talking about the situation that persisted at least until the late 70s) we classify them into members of two or perhaps three language families - Nilo-Saharan and Kordofanian (sub-family of the Niger-Kordofanian family). Of course in addition there is Arabic which could not have been spoken in the area prior to the Muslim invasions of Egypt in the 700s (Common Era) or the first century AH and there are also speakers of Fulani and some other West African languages. All the other languages of the Mountains well predate that period and in most cases were spoken there from time immemorial. The Kordofanian languages consist of four groups: Heiban, Talodi, Rashad and Katla - these names are based on their geographical centres (proposed by Thilo Schadeberg) and differ from names used in previous literature. The Kadugli Group was earlier classified by Greenberg as part of Kordofanian but removedfrom that relationship by Schadeberg and is currently considered probably part of Nilo-Saharan. The Kordofanian sub-groups are located in the southern and eastern areas of the Nuba Mountains. The Kadugli Group is located in the south east central fringe area near Kadugli  

At the time of their relocation in 1963, the Nubians consisted of nearly 120,000 people, 29% of Egypt's total population. They took great pride in the simple pleasures of music, dance, work and their homes. Like similar tribes of people across the world, they were connected to their homelands and took tremendous satisfaction in the lands of Nubia, in which they had made their havens
In the mid-1950’s, Nubian concerns increased as rumors began telling of a construction of a "new high dam" that would further flood Nubian homelands. The result would be a large-scale move further inland as their homelands were soon to be inundated by water. Feelings of hopelessness, grief and depression overtook the Nubian people, but with no other choice available, they were forced to leave. Those who were effected the most adversely were the older generations who had gained a real sense of hearth in their birthplace of Nubia
On October 18, 1963 the first displacement of people occurred. 501 families, consisting of 1,233 people, their livestock and belongings were evacuated from the Kenuz village of Daboud, which was 25 kilometers south of Aswan. It was reported to be a traumatic experience for them as many kissed the ground and filled their pockets with soil . Several groups of Nubians consisting of approximately 100,000 people were eventually displaced. Lack of planning, and sheer size of the displaced people caused numerous logistical problems. For instance, at the time that many were relocated the homes that they were promised were not yet complete. Several families had to share a single home while houses were being constructed. Also, a good number of the livestock that many relied on as food sources did not survive the journey. Therefore, the availability of food was a great concern for a while. The Nubians re-decorated their surroundings to become more familiar and to feign an assemblance of what they had left behind. This was against the regulations of the new area, but the government conceded to their request .The governments position stated that the displacement of the Nubian people was a small price to pay when weighed against the benefits that were to be provided by the new Aswan High Dam. By allowing the Russians, whose main concern was only with the mechanics of the dam, to control the project, the Egyptian government allowed itself to rush into a planned design without adequate research into the possible impacts of such a design, nor did they identify the logistical processes required to manage such a large-scale movement of people. This lack of planning and organization paid a grave disservice to a large portion of its population: (The Nubian people

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